MBA Strategy arrow GMAT arrow Reading Comprehension. Примеры заданий

Reading Comprehension. Примеры заданий

Вопросы в разделе reading comprehension были созданы специально для того, чтобы проверить Ваше умение читать и понимать сложные тексты. Вы должны будете прочитать от 2 до 4 параграфов (200-400 слов в каждом). Затем будут следовать по 4 вопроса на каждое задание. Вы будете видеть текст на экране все время, пока Вы не ответите на все вопросы.

Passage 37


Japanese firms have achieved the highest levels of
  manufacturing efficiency in the world automobile
  industry. Some observers of Japan have assumed that
  Japanese firms use the same manufacturing equipment
(5) and techniques as United States firms but have bene-
  fited from the unique characteristics of Japanese
  employees and the Japanese culture. However, if this
  were true, then one would expect Japanese auto plants
  in the United States to perform no better than factories
(10) run by United States companies. This is not the case,
  Japanese-run automobile plants located in the United
  States and staffed by local workers have demonstrated
  higher levels of productivity when compared with facto-
  ries owned by United States companies.
(15)  Other observers link high Japanese productivity to
  higher levels of capital investment per worker. But a
  historical perspective leads to a different conclusion.
  When the two top Japanese automobile makers
  matched and then doubled United States productivity
(20) levels in the mid-sixties, capital investment per
   employee was comparable to that of United States
   firms. Furthermore, by the late seventies, the amount of
   fixed assets required to produce one vehicle was
   roughly equivalent in Japan and in the United States.
(25) Since capital investment was not higher in Japan, it had
   to be other factors that led to higher productivity.
     A more fruitful explanation may lie with Japanese
   production techniques. Japanese automobile producers
   did not simply implement conventional processes more
(30) effectively: they made critical changes in United States
   procedures. For instance, the mass-production philos-
   ophy of United States automakers encouraged the
   production of huge lots of cars in order to utilize fully
   expensive, component-specific equipment and to
(35) occupy fully workers who have been trained to execute
   one operation efficiently. Japanese automakers chose to
   make small-lot production feasible by introducing
   several departures from United States practices,
   including the use of flexible equipment that could be
(40) altered easily to do several different production tasks
   and the training of workers in multiple jobs.
   Automakers could schedule the production of different
   components or models on single machines, thereby
   eliminating the need to store the buffer stocks of extra
(45) components that result when specialized equipment
   and workers are kept constantly active.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
  (A) present the major steps of a process
  (B) clarify an ambiguity
  (C) chronicle a dispute
  (D) correct misconceptions
  (E) defend an accepted approach

2. The author suggests that if the observers of Japan
  mentioned in line 3 were correct, which of the following
  would be the case?
  (A) The equipment used in Japanese automobile plants
     would be different from the equipment used in
     United States plants.
  (B) Japanese workers would be trained to do several
     different production jobs.
  (C) Culture would not have an influence on the
     productivity levels of workers.
  (D) The workers in Japanese-run plants would have
     higher productivity levels regardless of where they
     were located.
  (E) The production levels of Japanese-run plants located   
     in the United States would be equal to those of  
     plants run by United States companies.

3. Which of the following statements concerning the
  productivity levels of automakers can be inferred from
  the passage?
  (A) Prior to the 1960's, the productivity levels of the top
     Japanese automakers were exceeded by those of
     United States automakers.
  (B) The culture of a country has a large effect on the
     productivity levels of its automakers.
  (C) During the late 1970's and early 1980's, 
 productivity levels were comparable in Japan and
 the United States.
  (D) The greater the number of cars that are produced in 
     a single lot, the higher a plant's productivity level.
  (E) The amount of capital investment made by
     automobile manufacturers in their factories
     determines the level of productivity.

4. According to the passage, which of the following
  statements is true of Japanese automobile workers?
  (A) Their productivity levels did not equal those of
 United States automobile workers until the late
  (B) Their high efficiency levels are a direct result of
     cultural influences.
  (C) They operate component-specific machinery.
  (D) They are trained to do more than one job.
  (E) They produce larger lots of cars than do workers in
     United States factories.

5. Which of the following best describes the organization
  of the first paragraph?
  (A) A thesis is presented and supporting examples are
  (B) Opposing views are presented, classified, and then
  (C) A fact is stated, and an explanation is advanced and
     then refuted.
  (D) A theory is proposed, considered, and then
  (E) An opinion is presented, qualified, and then

6. It can be inferred from the passage that one problem
  associated with the production of huge lots of cars is
  which of the following?
  (A) The need to manufacture flexible machinery and
  (B) The need to store extra components not required for
      immediate use
  (C) The need for expensive training programs for
     workers, which emphasize the development of
     facility in several production jobs.
  (D) The need to alter conventional mass-production
  (E) The need to increase the investment per vehicle in
     order to achieve high productivity levels

7. Which of the following statements is supported by
  information stated in the passage?
  (A) Japanese and United States automakers differ in
     their approach to production processes.
  (B) Japanese automakers have perfected the use of
     single-function equipment.
  (C) Japanese automakers invest more capital per
     employee than do United States automakers.
  (D) United States-owned factories abroad have higher
     production levels than do Japanese owned plants in
     the United States.
  (E) Japanese automakers have benefited from the
     cultural heritage of their workers.

8. With which of the following predictive statement                
      regarding Japanese automakers would the author
      most likely agree?
  (A) The efficiency levels of the Japanese automakers
     will decline if they become less flexible in their
     approach to production
  (B) Japanese automakers productivity levels double
     during the late 1990's.
  (C) United States automakes will originate net
     production processes before Japanese automakers
  (D) Japanese automakers will hire fewer workers than
     will United States automakers because each worker
     is required to perform several jobs.
  (E) Japanese automakers will spend less on equipment
     repairs than will United States automakers because
     Japanese equipment can be easily altered.

Материал подготовила Елена Нещерет,

GMAT-консультант компании MBA Strategy

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